Why Running Hurts Knees

Running is a beloved form of exercise for many people around the world. It provides numerous health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular fitness, weight management, and stress relief. However, it is not without its drawbacks. One of the most common complaints among runners is knee pain. As a long-time runner myself, I have experienced first-hand how running can take a toll on our knees.

Understanding the Anatomy of the Knee

To comprehend why running can cause knee pain, it’s essential to understand the anatomy of the knee joint. The knee is a complex joint that consists of bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. The femur (thighbone), tibia (shinbone), and patella (kneecap) are the main bones that make up the knee. Ligaments provide stability, while tendons connect muscles to bones.

The Impact of Running

When we run, our knees endure significant impact forces with every step. The repetitive pounding can put stress on the knee joint, leading to pain and discomfort. This impact can be exacerbated by various factors, including running on hard surfaces, improper footwear, and overpronation (inward rolling of the foot during foot strike).

Common Knee Injuries in Runners

There are several common knee injuries that runners may experience:

  1. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS): Also known as “runner’s knee,” PFPS is characterized by pain around or behind the kneecap. It can be caused by factors such as muscle imbalances, tightness in the iliotibial (IT) band, or improper running form.
  2. Iliotibial (IT) Band Syndrome: The IT band is a thick band of tissue that runs along the outside of the thigh, connecting the hip to the knee. Overuse of the IT band can cause inflammation and pain on the outer side of the knee.
  3. Meniscus Tears: The meniscus is a piece of cartilage in the knee joint that helps cushion and stabilize the joint. Repetitive stress or trauma can lead to tears in the meniscus, causing pain, swelling, and limited range of motion.
  4. Patellar Tendonitis: Also known as “jumper’s knee,” this condition involves inflammation of the tendon that connects the kneecap to the shinbone. It is often caused by repetitive jumping or running activities.

Preventing Knee Pain from Running

While running can put stress on our knees, there are steps we can take to minimize the risk of knee pain:

  • Proper Warm-up and Cool-down: Start each run with a dynamic warm-up to prepare your muscles and joints for the activity. Afterward, perform static stretches to improve flexibility and aid in recovery.
  • Gradual Increase in Mileage and Intensity: Avoid sudden jumps in mileage or intensity to allow your body to adapt gradually to the demands of running.
  • Strength Training: Incorporate strength training exercises that target the muscles around the knee, such as squats and lunges. Stronger muscles provide better support and stability to the knee joint.
  • Choosing the Right Shoes: Invest in a pair of running shoes that provide proper cushioning and support for your foot type and running style.
  • Listening to Your Body: Pay attention to any pain or discomfort during running. If you experience persistent knee pain, it’s essential to rest and seek professional advice if needed.


While running can be an excellent way to stay fit and active, it is essential to be mindful of our knees’ health. Understanding the potential causes of knee pain and taking preventive measures can help us continue to enjoy the benefits of running without unnecessary discomfort. Remember to always listen to your body and seek appropriate medical advice if needed. Keep running and take care of those knees!